Skin Care Dictionary

Definitions for STS web site library

Skin Anatomy:

Skin Barrier

The skin barrier is located in the stratum corneum, which is the uppermost layer of the epidermis. It is comprised of a lipid bilayer, which retains moisture and prevents allergens and irritants from entering the skin. When the skin barrier is damaged, the skin becomes dry, dehydrated, and susceptible to irritation and inflammation.

Epidermis

The epidermis is the outermost layer of skin. It contains cells called keratinocytes because they make the protein keratin. It is made up of four or five sublayers (depending on the location on the body): the basal layer, spiny layer, granular layer, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum. Each layer has a different function.

Dermis

The dermis is the middle layer of skin, located below the epidermis. It contains specialized skin cells called fibroblasts. This is where important skin components such as collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate are made. Only a select few topical ingredients are able to reach this layer of skin.

Stratum Corneum

The stratum corneum is the uppermost layer of the epidermis. This is where the skin barrier is located. There are 15 to 40 layers of skin cells in the stratum corneum, each arranged like a brick wall. The “mortar” between the skin cell “bricks” is the lipid bilayer that makes up the skin barrier. 

Melanocyte

Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce melanin, the pigment that gives your skin its color. All humans have the same number of melanocytes, but the amount of melanin that these cells produce can vary from person to person. Melanocytes are located in both the epidermis and the dermis. They are stimulated by light, heat, hormones, stress and certain medications.

Keratinocyte

Keratinocytes are the skin cells that make up almost all of the cells located in the epidermis. These cells are created in the basal layer and work their way upward to the epidermis, pushing old skin cells up and out of the way. In the epidermis, the old cells flake off and are replaced by the new keratinocytes. Keratinocytes product the structural protein keratin.

Keratin- A structural protein made in the epidermal keratinocytes. Found in the epidermis, hair and nails.  This is the substance that clogs pores and causes comedones (Black heads and white heads).

Fibroblast

Fibroblasts are specialized cells located in the dermis layer of skin. They are responsible for producing collagen, hyaluronic acid, and elastin. They can move around in the dermis and play an important role in skin thickness, aging and wound healing. 

Skin cells

The skin is made up of many types of cells. Keratinocytes are in the epidermis, while fibroblasts are in the dermis. Melanocytes and immune cells move around in the epidermis and dermis.

Ingredient Categories:

Antioxidants

Antioxidants are molecules that donate an electron in order to neutralize harmful free radicals. Antioxidants are naturally found in many plants, including berries, green tea, and ginger. Antioxidants in skincare can prevent inflammation and reduce signs of skin aging.  

Anti-inflammatories

Anti-inflammatory ingredients can deactivate one or more of the many inflammatory pathways that lead to inflammation.  Inflammation always consists of dilated blood vessels and redness and may lead to hives, itching and rashes depending on which inflammatory pathways are turned on. 

Skin Lighteners

Skin lighteners are a group of skincare ingredients that even skin tone. They may be called skin brighteners. They work by one or more of the following: block production of melanin,  block transfer of melanosomes from the melanocyte to the keratinocyte, or increasing exfoliation.

Tyrosinase inhibitors

Tyrosinase is the enzyme necessary to produce the pigment melanin. Tyrosinase inhibitors block this enzyme. There are many different tyrosinase inhibitors used to treat skin pigmentation problems, such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, vitamin C, arbutin and kojic acid. 

PAR-2 blockers

Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is located in the connection between keratinocytes and melanocytes.  It functions as a doorway to allow melanin laden melasomes to enter into the keratinocyte after being produced by melanocytes. PAR-2 blockers prevent melanin from entering keratinocytes. Examples include niacinamide and proteins found in soy.

Exfoliants

The skin’s natural exfoliation process is called desquamation.  When natural desquamation is not enough, exfoliants can be used to increase exfoliation. There are two types of exfoliants: chemical and mechanical. Chemical exfoliants use a low pH or enzymes to dissolve and loosen proteins attachments between skin cells. Mechanical exfoliants use friction to rub dead skin cells off of the surface of the skin.

Chemical Exfoliation-

Chemical exfoliants such as glycolic and lactic acids have a low pH and work by loosening the “glue” attachments between skin cells. This allows dead skin cells to flake off of the skin’s surface in a process called exfoliation.  

Mechanical Exfoliation-

Loofas, scrubs, brushes, and microdermabrasion devices use friction to physically remove dead skin cells from the surface of the stratum corneum causing exfoliation.

Retinoids

Retinoids are a family of vitamin-A-derived ingredients. Retinol, retinyl palmitate, tretinoin, isotretinoin, adapalene, tazarotene and trifarotene are all types of retinoids. These ingredients have many uses and are often used to treat acne, wrinkles, and dark spots on the skin. Retinyl esters such as retinyl palmitate are not as effective as retinol and tretinoin.  The strongest retinoids is tazarotene.

Antiaging

Many antiaging ingredients work by either stimulating the production of important skin components, such as collagen and hyaluronic acid, or by helping cells heard signals better- promoting them to produce important cellular components.  Some of the most effective antiaging ingredients include retinoids, defensins, heparan sulfate, and growth factors.

Barrier Repair

When the skin barrier becomes damaged, it has trouble holding onto water and keeping allergens and irritants out. Barrier repair moisturizers mimic the skin’s natural 1:1:1 ratio of ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol to strengthen and repair this barrier. 

MLE Technology 

Myristoyl/palmitoyl oxostearamide/arachamide MEA is a pseudoceramide known as MLE technology to mimic the natural multilamellar organization of lipids within healthy human skin. The lipids in MLE Technology lipids form a maltese cross structure in skin confirming that mimics the skin’s natural lipid structure and strengthens the skin’s natural barrier in the stratum corneum.

Indications :

Nonfoaming Cleanser 

Foaming Cleanser 

Soothing Cleanser 

Hydroxyacid Cleanser 

Exfoliating Scrub 

Salicylic Acid Cleanser 

Acne BP Face and Body Cleanser 

Antibacterial Cleanser 

Antibacterial Body Wash 

Cleansing Water 

Hydrating Eye Cream 

Anti-Aging Eye Cream 

Soothing Eye Serum 

Brightening Eye Serum 

Anti-Puffiness Eye Serum 

Hydroxyacid Eye Cream 

Hydroxyacid Body Lotion 

Hydrating Antiaging Moisturizer 

Barrier Repair Body Lotion 

Light Antiaging Moisturizer 

Noncomedogenic Light Moisturizer 

Barrier Repair Moisturizer 

Soothing Barrier Repair Moisturizer 

Noncomedogenic Chemical SPF Face Untinted 

Noncomedogenic Physical SPF Face Untinted 

Daily SPF Physical Body Moisturizer 

Moisturizing Chemical SPF Face Untinted 

Noncomedogenic Physical SPF Face Tinted 

Daily SPF Chemical Body Moisturizer 

Body SPF Spray Chemical 

Body SPF Spray Physical 

Lip Physical SPF 

Lip Organic SPF 

Upper Eyelid SPF Light 

Moisturizing Physical SPF Face Tinted 

Moisturizing Physical SPF Face Untinted 

Moisturizing Chemical SPF Face Tinted 

SPF Physical Facial Spray 

SPF Chemical Facial Spray 

High SPF Water Resistant Chemical Facial SPF 

High SPF Water Resistant Physical Facial SPF 

Chemical SPF Stick 

Physical SPF Stick 

Organic Physical SPF Untinted 

Noncomedogenic Chemical SPF Face Tinted 

Sun protective supplements 

Vitamin C Serum 

Retinoid Low Strength 

Retinoid Mid Strength 

Retinoid High Strength 

Soothing Antioxidant Oil 

Anti-Redness Treatment 

Low Potency Steroid 

Skin Lightening for Dry Skin 

Skin Lightening for Oily Skin 

Acne Treatment 

BP Acne Treatment 

Hydroxy Acid Face High Strength 

Antiaging Retinoid Alternative 

Hydroquinone Free Skin Lightening 

Hydroxy Acid Face Low Strength 

Hydroxy Acid Face Medium Strength 

Seborrheic Dermatitis Treatment 

Retinoid/Antimicrobial 

Retinoid/Skin Lightener 

Retinoid/Ascorbic Acid 

Retinoid/Hydroxy Acid 

Retinoid/Skin Lightener/Steroid 

Anti-Aging Neck Cream 

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